gTLD Registries Archive

Last Updated: 1 September 2009

On 14 Dec 2002 the DNSO was replaced by the GNSO. The last DNSO gTLD Constituency page.

Former Names Council Representation

Root Servers

The WIA map (February 1998) is partly outdated.

The official ICANN documents include the correct one, for example: <http://www.icann.org/correspondence/roberts-testimony-14feb01.htm (Testimony of Michael M. Roberts Before U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, Subcommittee on Communications).

There is no much difference in geography between the two constellations (www.wia.org and Mike Roberts document), only names are updated (no more reference to NSI-NSF etc).

According to Mike Roberts document:

 ROOT-SERVERS name org city            type
 a NSI Herndon, VA,                    US com
 b USC-ISI Marina del Rey, CA,         US edu
 c PSInet Herndon, VA,                 US com
 d U of Maryland College Park, MD,     US edu
 e NASA Mt View, CA,                   US usg
 f Internet Software C. Palo Alto, CA, US com
 g DISA Vienna, VA,                    US usg
 h ARL Aberdeen, MD,                   US usg
 i NORDUnet Stockholm,                 SE int
 j NSI (TBD) Herndon, VA,              US (com)
 k RIPE London,                        UK int
 l ICANN Marina del Rey, CA,           US org
 m WIDE Tokyo,                         JP edu

Domain names registration

Generic TLDs - gTLDs, each with its charter for registration

To register a domain name in the .aero, .biz, .com, .coop, .info, .museum, .name, .net, .org, .pro domains, please contact one of the ICANN Accredited Registrars: <http://www.icann.org/registrars/accredited-list.html>

Restricted generic TLDs (gTLDs)

The .gov domain <http://www.nic.gov> is reserved exclusively for the United States Government.

The .mil domain <http://www.nic.mil> is reserved exclusively for the United States Military.

The .edu domain <http://www.educause.edu/edudomain/> is registered through Educause.

The .int domain is used for registering organizations established by international treaties between or among national governments. Full details, including the requirements and a link to the application form can be found at IANA's .int registry information page.

Country code TLDs (ccTLDs)

To register a domain name in a country code TLD (such as .br, .ca, .cn, .de, .fr, .jp, .mg, .mx, uk, ... ), please contact the corresponding ccTLD registry: <http://www.iana.org/cctld/cctld.htm>.

The list of ccTLD's Nic-handles is helpful for the whois queries <http://www.dnso.org/dnso/ccTLDs-handles.html>.

See also the list of URLs for ccTLD Registries around the world mainained by the Norwegian Registry <http://www.uninett.no/navn/domreg.html>.

The list of States party to the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property is maintained at <http://www.wipo.org/eng/ratific/d-paris.htm>.

The United Nations Statistics Division provides information on Standard Country or Area Codes and Geographical Regions for Statistical Use <http://www.un.org/Depts/unsd/methods/m49.htm>.

The ccTLDs are based on the ISO3166 code. For more information see the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency website <http://www.din.de/gremien/nas/nabd/iso3166ma/>.

Excerpt from "How to get a country name into ISO 3166-1" <http://www.din.de/gremien/nas/nabd/iso3166ma/get_name.html>:

A request for the inclusion of a country name (or the name of a dependent area) in ISO 3166-1 must originate from the national government of the country or from the national standards body of that country. The ISO 3166/MA rejects any request which is not accompanied by a written statement from the national goverment explicitly agreeing to and supporting the request.

Since 2000 ICANN/IANA had to state on Delegation/Redelagation/Deletion for ccTLDs:

  1. IANA Report on Request for Redelegation of the .pn Top-Level Domain (11 February 2000)
  2. IANA Report on Request for Delegation of the .ps Top-Level Domain (22 March 2000)
  3. IANA Report on Request for Redelegation of the .ca Top-Level Domain (1 December 2000)
  4. IANA Report on Deletion of the .zr Top-Level Domain (20 Jun 2001)
  5. IANA Report on Request for Redelegation of the .au Top-Level Domain (31 Aug 2001)
  6. Second IANA Report on Request for Redelegation of the .au Top-Level Domain (19 Nov 2001)
  7. ICANN Announcement on Redelegation of the .us Top-Level Domain (19 Nov 2001) (This redelegation occurred before the completion of the normal IANA requirements.)
  8. IANA Report on Request for Redelegation of the .jp Top-Level Domain (8 Feb 2002)

NOTE, Oct 2001: We note that IANA publishes now list of IANA reports since 2000 at <http://www.iana.org/domain-names.htm>.

Please note that ccTLD's policies vary. The list of URLs above is intended to help you to find the following information:

  1. in which country a ccTLD registry is located
  2. in which country a ccTLD registry is incorporated (if private company)
  3. under which country law a ccTLD registry operates
  4. charter of a ccTLD registry
  5. liability of a ccTLD registry
  6. technical capability of a ccTLD registry